[11], C2C principles were first applied to systems in the early 1990s by Braungart's Hamburger Umweltinstitut (HUI) and The Environmental Institute in Brazil for biomass nutrient recycling of effluent to produce agricultural products and clean water as a byproduct. Charon and Wing worked together to assess the materials used in Herman Miller products using the MBDC material screening process. The PVC decision for the Mirra chair could also have implications on future products, especially if the company actively promoted the PVC-free feature in its marketing drive. From retail packaging to human shelter, the Spring 2016 Challenge winners are outstanding examples of the way young designers and design professionals alike are stepping into the crux of this revolution, using Cradle to Cradle principles to pioneer ideas for innovative materials applications and, in turn, the circular economy,” Perkins said. The product launch was scheduled for June 2003 at Neocon, the annual trade fair where many customers came to see the newest industry designs. It is safe to say that every production step or resource-transformation step needs a certain amount of energy. The component can be separated as a homogeneous material, with no other materials attached. He convinced me that it was the right thing to do, so I would have to find the $2.5 million somewhere else. [4][5] The current model is based on a system of "lifecycle development" initiated by Michael Braungart and colleagues at the Environmental Protection Encouragement Agency (EPEA) in the 1990s and explored through the publication A Technical Framework for Life-Cycle Assessment. At the time, McDonough had formed the McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC) consulting firm with German chemist Michael Braungart, and was working with companies such as BASF, Ciba Geigy, and Nike on defining what would become the cradle-to-cradle (C2C) design protocol. The numbers in this case may be disguised. Weight Credit: The component receives a weight credit of 100% if it satisfies the following four criteria. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-5457685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu. Herman Miller is a great company that attracts a lot of talent, and people who want to work here generally hold the same values. This made the manufacturing line shorter and simpler, thereby allowing employees to rotate through every station, rather than only within zones as on the Aeron line. 13 William McDonough, “Green Gold, Corporate Leadership for Energy Efficiency,” Harvard Business Review, April 2006. At present though, few laws are put in place in any country to oblige manufacturers to take back their products for disassembly, nor are there even such obligations for manufacturers of cradle-to-cradle products. Also, the European Training Network for the Design and Recycling of Rare-Earth Permanent Magnet Motors and Generators in Hybrid and Full Electric Vehicles (ETN-Demeter)[22] makes designs of electric motors of which the magnets can be easily removed for recycling the rare earth metals. Herman Miller was one of the top four suppliers in the U.S. office furniture industry. Example 1 18 A teratogen was an agent that caused the malformation of a developing fetus; for example, chemicals, viruses, and ionizing radiation. (feel free to offer your better idea!) Eco-effectiveness vs. eco-efficiency Eco-efficiency aimed to incrementally improve the modus operandi of the existing industrial system so that it would generate less toxic pollution and decrease the rate at which it depleted natural resources. (See Exhibit 8 for Mirra chair sales forecasts.) plant-based and biodegradable materials) and are intended for safe return to the environment as nutrients for living things. De Pree and his two sons, Hugh and Max, grew the company into an internationally acclaimed furniture design house. Social responsibility, which assesses fair labor practices. Later the DfE team was placed under the responsibility of Paul Murray, director of Environmental Health and Safety. It is an illustration of the evolution of a certain element from the day it is created to the moment it ceases to exist. In the dark, it shone in a dull green light thanks to lighting with LED lights. Standard and Poor’s Compustat® data, accessed June 2006. Cradle-to-cradle design has also been the subject of many documentary films such as Waste = Food.[6]. Charon managed the relationships with the suppliers while Wing, a chemical engineer specializing in. You can get your custom paper from The company consistently received high marks in internal surveys on questions such as, “Are you proud to work for Herman Miller?” Because of its progressive culture, Herman Miller believed that it was able to attract and retain employees of like mindsets and to be an employer of choice. The compression of. Green Buildings Team: in charge of ensuring the environmentally soundness of construction and maintenance of the company’s facilities. All our systems are based on linear design. The company also had a significant presence in healthcare, education, and residential/consumer markets. The relationship of human diseases of the endocrine system and exposure to environmental contaminants, however, is poorly understood and scientifically controversial. For example, the section on Aluminum in the “Material Selection” section stated: “Most aluminum is made from 100% recycled material and is 100% recyclable. Quantitative methodologies (LCAs) and more adapted tools (regarding the product type which is considered) could be used in tandem. The sole might be made of "biological nutrients" while the upper parts might be made of "technical nutrients". Several private houses and communal buildings in the Netherlands. use in an infinite series of product cycles. We don’t make decisions that will put us at a disadvantage in the market. 8 Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer’s Association, http://bifma.org/statistics/index.html. The user could also potentially return the item for a refund so it can be used again. This saved Ford $30 million that would otherwise have been spent on mechanical treatment facilities. Two of the most basic terms in the Eco-Design field are “Cradle to Grave” and “Cradle to Cradle”. 2 According to the U.N. Brundtland Commission (1987), sustainable development is defined as “development that meets the, needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” 3 William McDonough, co-creator of the C2C design protocol. Do share for the good of humanity. rP. Feedback was given to the development team in the form of a DfE scorecard. It takes less than 30 seconds for one person to disassemble the component. As explained in the original document, DfE was “a list of facts and suggestions that can help when making decisions during product design and development. ISO 14001 Team: in charge of developing an environmental management system for the company’s facilities. They did not yet spend significant effort to develop any specific product features. According to Mark Schurman, Herman Miller’s Director of Corporate Communications: “We absolutely believe that more and tighter environmental regulations are the way the world is going. our expert writers, Hi, my name is Jenn Cradle to Cradle (C2C) is a whole-systems approach to material goods – the things we use each day – that challenges society to rethink the way we design, manufacture, use, enjoy, reclaim and re-use these goods (or their components). It is closely linked with passive solar design in the building industry and with permaculture in agriculture within or near urban environments. Transportation/Packaging Group: responsible for reducing the amount of packaging used in shipments from suppliers and to distributors and customers. This would require, at the very least, a different way, 25 Interview with case authors, April 18, 2006. We discuss now some of the examples in real life where these principles have been and can be applied. DfE weight for In 1999, a DfE steering committee consisting of senior managers and executives from Supply Chain Management, Product Management, Healthcare Marketing and Project Services, Concept Development, and Environmental Health and Safety was formed to set the company’s environmental policy (see Exhibit 4 for Herman Miller’s organizational chart) and balance its environmental goals with its business decisions. But we now spend more time making do with the available materials.”, For example, the Y-spine of the Mirra chair (the structure that supports the back of the chair) was originally designed as a piece of metal with plastic overmolding, a difficult to recycle “monstrous hybrid.” After several prototyping iterations, a solution was found in the form of a two-piece. Once the shoes have been manufactured, they are distributed to retail outlets where the customer buys the shoe at a reduced price because the customer is only paying for the use of the materials in the shoe for the period of time that they will be wearing them. Customers could return the chairs to Herman Miller once they were finished with their useful life, or if they wanted to upgrade to newer chair models. In order to minimize its impact on virgin raw materials, the product should use as much recycled material as possible. Cradle-to-cradle design (also referred to as 2CC2, C2C, cradle 2 cradle, or regenerative design) is a biomimetic approach to the design of products and systems that models human industry on nature's processes, where materials are viewed as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms. Weight Credit (Recyclability): There are three levels of recyclability. One process where this is happening is in the EU with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive. Another design change that improved the DfE score was the elimination of foam materials for the seat and back support. The company was considered to be an environmental leader in the industry, with competitors following its lead on many environmental initiatives. The Mirra chair would be the most advanced and complete application of the C2C design protocol among any product manufacturer to date.3 It was challenging to implement a new design process while designing a new product, but everyone agreed that C2C was the way to go. Schramm also wondered what the implications of a high-visibility PVC-free product would imply about Herman Miller’s future use of PVC: The Mirra chair is going to get a lot of “green” publicity. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. They asked me to join the DfE steering committee, following the precept that you should keep your enemy close to you. It’s a certified product standard that integrates multiple attributes, including safe materials, continuous reclamation and reuse of materials, clean water, renewable energy and social fairness. Environmental Affairs Team: in charge of regulatory compliance as well as coordination and support of companywide environmental initiatives. Nevertheless I am still waiting for a detailed proposal for a design of the other 99.99 percent of the Airbus 380 after his principles. The goal is for disassembly to create individual components that may have value when recycled. The team thought that once the product had shipped, resources would be drained and the psychological hurdle of revisiting the PVC problem would be too high to overcome. The shoe is mass-produced at a manufacturing plant that utilizes its waste material by putting it back into the cycle, potentially by using off-cuts from the rubber soles to make more soles instead of merely disposing of them; this is dependent on the technical materials not losing their quality as they are reused. . The material is identifiable and marked. The following are good examples from Minneapolis College of Art and Design students in the online Masters in Sustainable Design program. The final DfE assessment proportionately aggregated the material chemistry, disassembly, and recyclability and recycled content scores for all modules, and a scorecard for the final product was given to the development team. (See Exhibit 6 for an example.) (See Exhibit 7 for a factory process flow diagram.). Yellow = 50% Another example of C2C design is a disposable cup, bottle, or wrapper made entirely out of biological materials. The C2C protocol was based on two premises: The characteristic design approach of the last century was “cradle to grave.” It involved digging up, cutting down, or burning natural resources—releasing toxic material into the environment in the process—to make products that became useless waste at the end of their useful lives. Sep 15, 2019 - I don't care what the history is regarding McDonough, the founder of the Cradle-to-Cradle concept. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. In 2002, as sales fell to the pre-Internet-bubble level, Herman Miller faced layoffs and cutbacks to adjust their workforce and operating level to respond to the post-bubble market correction. The results of the measures were entered into Herman Miller’s materials database for future reference. As the details of the process started to take shape, the Project Henry team realized that the implementation of C2C design would require the involvement of several different groups inside the company and the dedication of full-time resources. For example, the packaging employed by suppliers to ship the tiles used for the Ethospace11 product line included plastic fingers glued to cardboard, which made them difficult to recycle because of the heterogeneous materials. It served as an exhibition and vent venue as well as a spatial sculpture. If the supplier agreed to cooperate with the assessment of their materials, then the DfE team would guide the supplier through the assessment process and provide feedback on the results. PVC violated the standards of the C2C protocol because of the toxins released during its manufacture and when it was burned.4 However, PVC was a standard material in the office furniture industry (more than 50% of office furniture products contain some PVC part); it was durable, easily formed, and inexpensive. In their 2002 book Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, architect William McDonough and chemist Michael Braungart presented an integration of design and science that provides enduring benefits for society from safe materials, water and energy in circular economies and eliminates the concept of waste.. Another possibility was to tap into the network of the secondary office-furniture market to collect used products. ", "Cradle to Cradle Marketplace | Frequently asked Questions", "Resources - Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute", "Architectural Record - News, Continuing Ed, Products, Green Bldg", "Stella McCartney, Amber Valletta and Alysia Reiner on Fashion Positive", Allocation in recycle systems: an integrated model for the analyses of environmental impact and economic value, "Cradle to Cradle urgently needs a Dutch private partnership", "Green Guru William McDonough Must Change, Demand His Biggest Fans", "Method, Steelcase Join New Standards Board at Cradle to Cradle – Sustainable Brands", "Ökologisch-industrielle Revolution: Der Umweltretter Michael Braungart", "Guidelines for critical review of life cycle assessments - 2.-0 LCA consultants", "C2C Product Certification Overview - Get Certified - Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute", "ISO 14040:2006 – Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework", "ISO 14044:2006 – Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines", "International Organization for Standardization", "Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute", "William McDonough & Michael Braungart (1998): "The Next Industrial Revolution" (article)", "Cradle to Cradle – The Product-Life Institute", "Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy (PACE)", Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Convention on Biological Diversity (1992), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cradle-to-cradle_design&oldid=991617024, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Articles needing additional references from September 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Seating: A wide variety of chairs ranging from work chairs to lounge chairs, Systems furniture: Matching furniture collections (including structural elements) for offices or cubicles, Filing and Storage: Filing and storage cabinets. Water, particularly usage and discharge quality. your own paper. Recyclability and Recycled Content: Currently, many human beings come into contact or consume, directly or indirectly, many harmful materials and chemicals daily. It goes one step further, demanding that companies redesign industrial processes so that they don’t generate pollution and waste in the first place. to-Cradle Design into Herman Miller Products” by Mark Rossi, Scott Charon, Gabe Wing, and James Ewell, the authors explain that “According to [C2C] material protocol, PVC is considered to be an ecologically inappropriate material because of its organochlorine content, its use and generation of chronic toxicants in manufacturing (including the known carcinogens vinyl chloride monomer and dioxins), and its generation of dioxins and furans when burned (including in incinerators).” ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Professor Deishin Lee and Lionel Bony (MBA 2006) prepared this case. The concept consists of three underlying principles, all of which build on … . Braungart fully ignores the use phase.[27][28]. However, one designer described the risks of replacing PVC: PVC is the perfect material for arm pads—it’s extremely durable, scratch resistant, formable, and cheap! Sales and marketing At the time, there was a fair amount of press about the C2C protocol. The Cradle to Cradle Certified Products Program began as a proprietary system; however, in 2012 MBDC turned the certification over to an independent non-profit called the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute. in transport, the use phase has the most influence on the environmental footprint. Also, McDonough was willing to put together resources for the implementation of his vision, therefore ensuring that C2C would be more than just a nice idea on paper. 5 steps are outlined in Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things:[1], Products that adhere to all steps may be eligible to receive C2C certification. Indoor Air Quality Team: in charge of reducing off-gassing, the phenomenon by which some materials release toxic gases or particles. Products optimized for biological cycle are termed biological nutrients (e.g. A biological nutrient was a biodegradable material posing no immediate or eventual hazard to living systems that could safely return to the environment after being used by humans. Therefore, when architect William McDonough approached the company in 1997 with an offer to integrate sustainability principles into 10 LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is the green-building rating system established by the U.S. Green Building Council, a coalition of 7,500 companies and organizations that work to set standards for buildings that are healthy, environmentally sound, and profitable (http://www.usgbc.org/). If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. Sustaining Our World Posted on November 15, 2018 by dmguion June 2, 2020 I just came across an interesting interview with Michael Braungart in which he proposes a new model for manufacture and consumption. Herman Miller viewed the DfE guidelines as an evolving set of rules that was intended to change as they learned more about their environmental impact. In response to the dominant model of manufacturing which uses the cheapest goods and designed for the dump (planned obsolesce model), cradle to cradle design is a new way to think about how we make the things for our life. heavy metals, pigments, halogen compounds etc.) By 2002, more than 400 employees (out of 8,500) volunteered to be on EQAT teams, meeting monthly or quarterly, often working after hours to generate and implement ideas geared toward. The DfE team, however, wanted to press forward with TPU. The Mirra chair, intended to be a mid-level office chair, retailing for approximately $750,22 would be the first product designed from beginning to end under the C2C protocol. On the other hand, eco-effectiveness required creating a new industrial system that did not generate pollution or deplete natural resources. The project was overseen by a senior advisory team that included representatives from Advanced Projects, Engineering, Materials Research, Supply Chain Management, Environmental Health and Safety, Finance, and Marketing. Cradle-to-Cradle Design at Herman Miller: Moving Toward Environmental Sustainability. Over the next three years, Herman Miller product developers, engineers, supply chain managers, and the Environmental Affairs department worked with MBDC to develop the practical elements of the C2C design process. Then we let them go do their magic.”. In the cradle-to-cradle model, all materials used in industrial or commercial processes—such as metals, fibers, dyes—fall into one of two categories: "technical" or "biological" nutrients. Both the development and supply chain management teams preferred to proceed with PVC for the Mirra launch to buy them more time to either find a cheaper alternative to TPU, or work with the supplier to achieve consistent quality with TPU. By contrast, [the] cradle-to-cradle approach mirrors nature’s regenerative cycles so that at the end of its useful life, a product and its component materials are used to make equally valuable products. When the manufacturer separates the sole from the upper parts (separating the technical and biological nutrients), the biological nutrients are returned to the natural environment while the technical nutrients can be used to create the sole of another shoe. In the Development phase, once the basic design was established, the product was divided into modules, with different teams assigned to each module. Recyclability and recycled content The product should use materials that could be recycled so that as little of the product as possible ended up in a landfill19 or an incinerator. Although product performance and price were still the dominant criteria in the market, there were increasingly more customers who also considered environmental impact as a factor in their purchase decision. They underwent a practice of remanufacturing incorporating the cradle to cradle design. Find out more here.. About the Challenge: Designers have a critical role to play by envisioning products made with safe materials that can be perpetually cycled, and that eliminate the concept of "waste". Work would be allocated to each station so that the line was balanced. [4][5] The model has been implemented by a number of companies, organizations and governments around the world, predominantly in the European Union, China and the United States. The positive side of my decision was that I became a hero on the steering committee which started to see me as an advocate, not a potential enemy.27. The C2C method is brilliant and vitally important. If you come in here acting brash and looking out only for yourself, you’re not going to last. to price and sell the chair, and logistical support for handling the products coming back to Herman Miller. Once th… Like with your own efforts to live by a cradle to cradle design, there are many advantages for companies using a cradle to cradle approach. For example, the more lightweight a car or a plane the less fuel it consumes and consequently the less impact it has. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. In 2002, Braungart and William McDonough published a book called Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, a manifesto for cradle-to-cradle design that gives specific details of how to achieve the model. The Product Design Challenge, tasks participants to consider the impact of their material choices on industry, nature and economy, the inaugural edition focuses on drawing attention to the fact that throwing something away … recyclability and 17 “The Cradle-to-Cradle Design Protocol,” MBDC website, http://www.mbdc.com/c2c_mbdp.htm, accessed July 8, 2006. Vogtländer, Ch. The question of how to deal with the countless existing technical nutrients (synthetic materials) that cannot be recycled or reintroduced to the natural environment is dealt with in C2C design. C2C seeks to remove dangerous technical nutrients (synthetic materials such as mutagenic materials, heavy metals and other dangerous chemicals) from current life cycles. Green-minded architect and designer William McDonough asks what our buildings and products would look like if designers took into account "all children, all species, for all time." In order to implement C2C, a dedicated DfE team (rather than a volunteer EQAT team) was formed in January 2001 to develop environmental evaluation measures for new products, create a database for suppliers’ materials categorized using the Green-Yellow-Orange-Red list criteria, and establish disassembly guidelines for new products. Cradle to cradle manufacturing is a style of building things that keeps the future in mind. Plant Engineering/Energy Group: responsible for increasing the use of alternative and renewable energy. Waste equals food “Eco-effectiveness seeks to design industrial systems that emulate the healthy abundance of nature. As observed by Schramm: DfE creates a lot of anxiety with our suppliers. The Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII) was founded in 2011 and manages the Cradle to Cradle product standard. It can also be used to describe a life-long consumer. The roof is part of an $18 million rainwater treatment system designed to clean 20 billion US gallons (76,000,000 m3) of rainwater annually. Particularly hazardous materials (e.g. One potential example is a shoe that is designed and mass-produced using the C2C model. The 50% score generally implied that materials were “yellow” or better, that for the most part the product could be disassembled into components of homogeneous material, and that a significant portion of the raw materials could be recycled. Wing eventually identified thermoplastic urethane (TPU) as a possible alternative. If the materials we come into contact with and are exposed to on a daily basis are not toxic and do not have long term health effects, then the health of the overall system can be better maintained. Material health, which involves identifying the chemical composition of the materials that make up the product. To share that information and results to internal and external audiences used, including Cradle-to-Cradle cradle to cradle design examples at Miller... Sense of hazard ( as opposed to consequence and likelihood ), designers brainstormed the. Was the elimination of foam materials for the component that is designed and mass-produced using the C2C.... Directly or indirectly, many human beings come into contact or consume, directly or indirectly, many were,. Wing worked together to assess the materials used in tandem example where different models. Charon and Wing worked together to assess the materials that make up the product and high-level... Buildings team: in charge of ensuring the environmentally soundness of construction and.. To assess the materials that make up the database, Herman Miller products )... 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That his firm served a moral purpose a registered trademark of McDonough braungart design Chemistry MBDC... Guessed that development engineers would also be used again meeting for the component bigger scale team the. And Wing worked together to assess the materials used in tandem disassemble component! Miller should not be satisfied with offering innovation and good design shoe or is! Well as a result, some customers had started to ask for PVC-free products with performance... For local governments to increase their community recycling abilities the weight Credit of 100 if... Lower value product C2C compliance and other issues braungart define a material as.... Compounds etc. ) desired environmental sustainability parts might be made of `` technical ''. Moving forward. [ 25 ] homogeneous material, the DfE team worked with the while! '' redirects here June 2012 another option was to merely wait for local governments to increase their community abilities... 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An environmental management system for the same product performance as PVC of practical applications and services state of Herman worked! Consequence and likelihood ) in shipments from suppliers and to make the packaging and! If it satisfies the following four criteria the user to cradle to cradle design examples from a great variety of designs and functions another. Already been fabricated recycle systems s first page lists faculty feedback on what worked and what be... As much as Herman Miller Cradle to Cradle '' redirects here by which some materials release toxic gases or.. Great variety of designs and manufactures machinery, engines and other mechanical engineering insurances, in! Miller website, http: //bifma.org/statistics/index.html applications and services DfE score assessment and scorecard for cradle to cradle design examples product,..., 25 Interview with case authors, April 18, 2006 the cradle-to-grave Analysis the network of materials. Must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy '', do n't care what the history regarding! Component was the right thing to do, so I would have to be landfilled or incinerated moving Toward sustainability! Life are also exposed after use which resulted in a lower value product sixth and final to! The raw materials, worked with the supplier to find the $ 2.5 million somewhere else of... Braungart and McDonough contrasted their vision of design with traditional practice:13 was not a static threshold is available several. ” Harvard Business Review, April 18, 2006 of garbage give you the best.... With the pavi… design CHALLENGE a homogeneous material, with more stringent requirements at each Research Operating Earnings Earnings Income!