The Second Great Awakening caused a split in Presbyterianism. "Black Harry" Hosier, an illiterate freedman who drove Francis Asbury on his circuits, proved to be able to memorize large passages of the Bible verbatim and became a cross-over success, as popular among white audiences as the black ones Asbury had originally intended for him to minister. While the movement unified the colonies and boosted church growth, experts say it also caused division among those who supported it and those who rejected it. It arose in several places and in several active forms. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. The first informal camp meeting began in June, when people began camping on the grounds of the Red River Meeting House. The second great awakening was a religious revival in America. Among the new denominations that grew from the religious ferment of the Second Great Awakening are the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. A great encourager of such reforms was the evangelist Charles G. Finney. Second Great Awakening for kids: Background and History of the First Great Awakening The First Great Awakening began in 1725 and lasted up to 1750 during the Colonial period of American history. During the first half of the 1800's They founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in Philadelphia. Tent revivals were hallmarks of this historical movement. During this revival, meetings were held in small towns and the large cities throughout the country, and the unique frontier institution known as the camp meeting began. [citation needed] Another key component of the revivalists' techniques was the camp meeting. The Second and Third Awakenings were part of a much larger Romantic religious movement that was sweeping across England, Scotland, and Germany.[1]. Th… Question 25 1 pts What caused the Second Great Awakening? 1832. It officially emerged around 1830. Women's prayer groups were an early and socially acceptable form of women's organization. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. Charles Grandison Finney, the best known preacher of the Second Great Awakening, taught that sin was voluntary. Baptists and Methodists found the largest number of converts, swelling their numbers across the United States, including in Ohio. Up Next. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. The six-day gathering attracting perhaps as many as 20,000 people, although the exact number of attendees was not formally recorded. In the Appalachian region of Tennessee and Kentucky, the revival energized Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists, and gave rise to the popular ca… Blog. Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains in present-day Maryland and Virginia, where Presbyterian emigrants and Baptists held large outdoor gatherings in the years prior to the war. Relevance. The outpouring of religious fervor and revival began in Kentucky and Tennessee in the 1790s and early 1800s among the Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists. The Great Awakening is, in fact, several periods in American Christian history, and these periods are characterized by religious revivals and an increase in spiritual interest. Perhaps equally important was his influence upon young men such as Barton W. Stone and William McGee. Interest in transforming the world was applied to mainstream political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. During this time also, there was the reject of the doctrine of predestination as taught by Calvin over the course of the first awakening. The revivals first stirred during the 1790s, but two major events after the turn of the century are often given as the starting point for the Second Great Awakening. The Great Awakening was sparked by the tour of an English evangelical minister named George Whitefield. Pietism was sweeping Germanic countries[4] and evangelicalism was waxing strong in England.[5]. These outdoor religious gatherings originated from field meetings and the Scottish Presbyterians' "Holy Fairs", which were brought to America in the mid-eighteenth century from Ireland, Scotland, and Britain's border counties. The Second Great Awakening was caused by the separation of church and state, industrialism, and western expansion, which are all outside factors, ultimately showing that the Second Great Awakening’s purpose was to change personal life in order to fit rapidly changing America. Converts were taught that to achieve salvation they needed not just to repent personal sin but also work for the moral perfection of society, which meant eradicating sin in all its forms. There were also societies that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to larger societal ones. Birdsall, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order". By the early 19th century, independent African-American congregations numbered in the several hundreds in some cities of the South, such as Charleston, South Carolina, and Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia. "Falling for the Lord: Shame, Revivalism, and the Origins of the Second Great Awakening.". Favorite Answer. These organizations were primarily sponsored by affluent women. Members of these groups acted as apostles for the faith, and also as educators and exponents of northeastern urban culture. Matthews’s article also addresses prevailing scholarly views of the Second Great Awakening, though it should be noted that the article appeared in 1969. The awakening brought comfort in the face of uncertainty as a result of the socio-political changes in America. Due to the efforts of such leaders as Stone and Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), the camp meeting revival spread religious enthusiasm and became a major mode of church expansion, especially for the Methodists and Baptists. They believed in the perfectibility of people and were highly moralistic in their endeavors. Use this page to find some basic information on the Great Awakening: what it was, what caused it, and what it influenced. Thephrase "religious revival" was originally coined in theeighteenth century to describe a new phenomenon in which churches experienced an unexpected "awakening" of spiritual concern, occasioned by a special and mysteriousoutpouring of God's saving grace, which led to unprecedentednumbers of intense and "surprising conversions" that "revived"the piety and power of the churches. A desire to reform the U.S. also arose out of the Second Great Awakening. [26] The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, NY, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women's organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier.[27]. Developing an American colonial identity. Who was Jonathan Edwards? Most of the religious revivals occurred as camp meetings. This second great awakening helped people personally connect with god and come to realizations about society with new movements being created. A desire to reform the … So this is the essence of The Second Great Awakening and in the next video, I'll talk a little bit more about the social forces that caused The Second Great Awakening and the consequences of its proliferation in early 19th century America. Church membership and religious activity gave women peer support and place for meaningful activity outside the home, providing many women with communal identity and shared experiences. The name refers to belief in the soon Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) and resulted in several major religious denominations, including Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians.[22]. Location: Religious reform affected all of the nation, however, only in northern states did the reform later play a significant role in social reform. God was also supposedly unconcerned with a person's church attendance; rather, God would judge the person on how he or she had lived his or her life on Earth. People did not have the time or the inclination for worship. Gratitude in the workplace: How gratitude can improve your well-being and relationships The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution. What were the effects of the Great Awakening? Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America", Carwardine, Richard J. Perhaps the most helpful way to begin understanding it is by emphasizing how different the dominant strains of Protestantism in 1850 were from those of the 1700s. By the late 1700s, many people in the U.S. no longer regularly attended church services. What is visual communication and why it matters; Nov. 20, 2020. Write. While the First Great Awakening was credited with a role in creating the republic, the Second Great Awakening helped the rise of Jacksonian democracy and prepared the stage for the Civil War. Despite being called the "greatest orator in America" by Benjamin Rush[31] and one of the best in the world by Bishop Thomas Coke,[30] Hosier was repeatedly passed over for ordination and permitted no vote during his attendance at the Christmas Conference that formally established American Methodism. It influenced pietistic Protestant denominations and had a strong element of social activism. [28] Social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of the Temperance movement. citizens needed order in their life. 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