The underground organs in an anaerobic medium are preserved, and they form the structural, or fibrous, part of peat. Research on the uses of peat in the USSR is conducted at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the Peat Industry in Leningrad, with its branches in Moscow and the village of Radchenko in Kalinin Oblast, the Peat Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR, and special laboratories of the Kalinin, Kaunas, and Tomsk polytechnical institutes. Peat - definition of peat by The Free Dictionary. Elevators transported raw peat from an open pit, then mixed and pressed it into bricks. Peat, or turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation.Peat forms in wetland bogs, moors, mires, and swamps.. Silty Soil. It is able to hold onto the roots of plants better and provide a more stable environment than many other types of soil. Peat containing vivianite is used as a phosphorus fertilizer, and peat with lime as a lime fertilizer. Peat definition, a highly organic material found in marshy or damp regions, composed of partially decayed vegetable matter: it is cut and dried for use as fuel. The type of peat bog is the primary unit of classification (Figure 1). The three subtypes are divided into groups consisting of four to eight species each (Table 1). Tanfil’ev. The texture is homogeneous, sometimes stratified, and the structure is usually fibrous or plastic (in strongly decomposed peat). Peat was used in both agriculture and medicine. Depending on the conditions under which it was formed and on its properties, peat is classified as high-moor, transitional, or low-moor peat. The world’s only plant for the production of alcohol and furfural from weakly decomposed peat is located in Leningrad Oblast. These traits/properties mean that different plants, fruits, vegetables, and other things are going to be more suitable for growing in peat soil than others. The world’s first book on peat, A Treatise on Peat by Martin Schoock, was written in Latin and published in Groningen in 1658. https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Peaty+soil. est. Peat reserves have not been investigated equally in all economic regions of the country. Trees and sometimes moss are removed, regardless of the purpose for which the peat is to be used. Depending on the percent of woody residues present, each type is subdivided into three subtypes—woody, woody-swamp, and swamp. The milling may be done with harrows, cultivators, or drum-type milling machines hooked to tractors. Ireland's Wild Atlantic Way is a world-class road trip, says MICHAEL MCHUGH, Advanced research on civil engineering and material engineering; proceedings, Officialdom is killing our Wales; 10 02-11 0-803 2010: Hinton bETTING: 7 Arrow LETTERS OwNERS CLub STAkES (CLASS 5) 2,388 5-9-8...L Newnes (5) 4, GoingStick still dividing opinion six months on; Critics question the benefit of 'inconsistent' TurfTrax device. Silty soil feels soft and soapy, it holds moisture, is usually very rich in nutrients. Peat-humus bricks and greenhouse soil mixtures are used with other constituents, including manure and mineral fertilizers, to grow vegetables and flowers; undecomposed peat serves as a biological fuel. In the museum, the most poignant artefacts were, for me, the clothes and shoes discovered preserved in the peaty soil. They are found in peatlands (also called bogs or mires). A soil having so high a degree of alkalinity (pH 8.5 or higher) or so high a percentage of exchangeable sodium (15 percent or more of the total exchangeable bases), or both, that plant growth is restricted. The deep-pit method of extracting lump peat is used to supply nonindustrial needs. Soil scientists define peat as organic soil with organic content of greater than 35%. Fibers found in the soil, especially in peaty soil play an important role in the determination of soil compressibility. Twenty-five primary types of peat bogs are distinguished in the European USSR and 32 in Western Siberia. Summary – What Grows Well In Peat Soil. any one of a group of soil types formed under conditions of excess moisture from precipitation or from stagnant fresh or slowly running groundwaters that have some mineral content. This restricted definition, including only materials which are entirely of vegetative origin, conflicts with several established soil classification systems. The drying, collecting, and loading operations were performed manually. peat, soil material consisting of partially decomposed organic matter, found mainly in swamps and bogs in various parts of the northern temperate zone but also in some semitropical and tropical regions. Low-moor peat added in large quantities (500 tons per ha or more) helps condition sod-podzolic soils and improve their physical and chemical properties. n. Partly decomposed vegetable matter, usually mosses, found in bogs and sometimes burned as fuel or mixed into soil to improve growing conditions. Peat with average properties is harvested by machines that intermix the beds or drainage-enrichment machines. peaty or organo mineral soils (km2) Deep peaty or organic soils (km2) Peat-forming bogs (km2) Peat-fens (km2) England 7,386 6,799 2,727 80 Wales 3,592 706 718 62 Northern Ireland 1,417 2,064 1,069 30 Scotland 34,612 17,269 17,720 86 Total area 47,007 26,838 22,775 258 UK area cover 19.3% 11% 9.35% 0.11% * Either existing or planned for restoration Define peat. These substances are the products of thermal and oxidative degradation, hydrogenation, and other processes. Peat bogs are classified according to the combination of individual species of peat at successive depths. In the 19th century peat was studied by V. V. Dokuchaev, S. G. Navashin, and G.I. The color varies from yellow or brown to black. In the 12th and 13th centuries peat was known as a fuel in Holland and Scotland. The rate of filtration through peat varies over several orders of magnitude. The method is completely mechanized and requires less labor and consumption of metal and energy than other methods. The piles are then loaded onto tractor-drawn dump trucks and transported to intermediate railroad warehouses. Peat has a complex chemical composition, which is determined by the conditions under which peat-forming plants originated, by the chemical composition of the plants, and by the degree of decomposition. Peat is burned as a fuel and is also used as a fertilizer. In the 16th and 17th centuries, coke and tar were obtained from peat by roasting. In Russia it was the botanical aspect of peat that came under study. The second trend involves the thorough decomposition of peat and the conversion of peat into completely new substances. There are two types: sphagnum peat is produced partially decayed sphagnum moss, and sedge peat from partially decayed sedges and heathers. Since many plant species grow on peat bogs (bog phytocoenoses) and since the conditions under which these species grow vary in mineral content, water content, and reaction of the soil solution, the properties of peat vary with the parts of the bogs on which the peat is formed. The latter extract the peat mass from a layer by means of milling devices that process and spread a layer of peat on the surface of the field. Soviet researchers identified the geographic patterns of the distribution of peat bogs, classified the types of peat and peat bogs, compiled cadastres and maps of peat bogs, and studied the chemical composition and physical properties of peat. peaty definition: 1. of or like peat: 2. of or like peat: . The peat industry distinguishes four types of peat bogs: low-moor, transitional, high-moor, and mixed. 2.1 Definition of Peat 2.1.1 In Scotland, peat is defined as “an organic soil which contains more than 60 per cent of organic matter and exceeds 50cin thickness”m (Macaulay Institute, 1984). They are distributed primarily in the temperate zone of the … Deposits of layer-forming species of varying extent and thickness follow one another in a particular succession to form a peat bog. Formation. The organic matter is made up of 1–5 percent water-soluble substances, 2–10 percent bitumens, 20–40 percent readily hydrolyz-able compounds, 4–10 percent cellulose, 15–50 percent humic acids, and 5–20 percent lignin. The commercial production of peat semicoke and tar began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This is the most qualitative peaty fuel which is used at boiler houses and by population. Explored peat reserves in the USSR are given by region in Table 3. As known, soil compaction harms gardens while reducing water absorption and affecting plant growth adversely. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Peaty+soil. Peat forms naturally by the incomplete decomposition of plant and animal constituents under anaerobic conditions at low temperatures. The principal operations include milling the top peat layers of a deposit to a depth of 25 mm, drying the milled peat, and gathering the finished product in the form of crumbs. A distinction is made between weakly decomposed (approximately 20 percent), moderately decomposed (20–35 percent), and strongly decomposed (more than 35 percent) peat. Clay soil has many crevices that can hold onto salts and can make plants unable to grow successfully. Mineral Soils 1. The three types of peat—high-moor, transitional, and low-moor—are classified according to the composition of the original plant material, conditions under which the peat was formed, and the peat’s physical and chemical properties. In the view of some scientists, peat is a precursor of a genetic series of coals. Humus imparts a dark color to peat. In excavation with integrated mechanization, the peat is removed from the deposit with a scoop, processed, and pressed into bricks, which are laid on top of the deposit and later collected and stored. Partly decomposed vegetable matter, usually mosses, found in bogs and sometimes burned as fuel or mixed into soil to improve growing conditions. Tree stumps and woody inclusions are extracted by stump pullers or crushed by deep-working milling machines; they are then separated and removed. Peat is a complex, polydisperse, multicomponent system. Activated charcoal is produced from peat in the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, and the USSR. High-moor peat provides good bedding for cattle and poultry. WILMAR- Zero Peat 2. N. A. KOPENKINA (formation and classification of peat),M. I. NEISHTADT (historical outline), andV. Research on the use of peat in power technology was carried out in the 1950’s. Its physical properties vary with the properties of its individual components, the relative amounts of individual components, and the degree of decomposition or degree of dispersion of the solid mass (as determined by the specific surface or quantity of fractions less than 250 micrometers in diameter). Processing decreases the moisture capacity of fuel peat. Small wood fragments and chips are collected from the surface of the plots by machines with harrows or tractor-drawn drums. Peat forms when plant material, usually in marshy areas, is inhibited from decaying fully by acidic and anaerobic conditions. The rate of decomposition of peat-forming plants in the peat-producing horizon varies with the plant species, the water content, acidity, and temperature of the medium, and the composition of the mineral constituents. Chalk soil is typically not considered to be very fertile and can inhibit growth in grapevines, as the high alkalinity interferes with the uptake and processing of nutrients and energy. Peat soil definition is - a soil consisting largley of peat and consequently rich in humus and of acid reaction. A species is the primary taxonomic unit of peat classification; it reflects the original plant association and the primary conditions of peat formation. Weakly decomposed high-moor peat has a high water- and gas-absorbing capacity and a low coefficient of thermal conductivity. Applications for felling licenses on peat soils must also be treated differently. Some peat deposits were formed during periods between glaci-ations or became superimposed by loose deposits of varying thickness as a result of change in the level of erosion. Well-aerated and thoroughly decomposed peat is used to mulch seeded fields. Before the October 1917 Revolution peat was extracted by hand. We left her standing upon the thin peninsula of firm, Lower organic matter soil such as grey soil, muck or, A nature expert has warned campers against the dangers of starting fires on. The area occupied by peat deposits and bogs throughout the world is approximately 350 million hectares (ha), of which approximately 100 million ha are commercially important. Peat soils are formed from partially decomposed plant material under anaerobic water saturated conditions. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. The water content of buried peat is less than that of recent peat. Classification. Prospecting for peat deposits entails an analysis of maps and aerial photographs; the exploration and prospecting stage is supplemented by field work. Preliminary prospecting is conducted on deposits covering an area of more than 1,000 ha in order to determine the feasibility of exploitation. RSPO- No new planting on peat 3. peat synonyms, peat pronunciation, peat translation, English dictionary definition of peat. Peat can be added to soil to help plants grow, or can be burned to produce coal. Peat is generally distinguished from soil by its high content of organic compounds —at least 50 percent of the weight after all moisture is removed. The most effective way to store peat and prevent spontaneous combustion is to insulate the piles from the air with a layer of wet peat. Peat is the surface organic layer of a soil that consists of partially decomposed organic matter, derived mostly from plant material, which has accumulated under conditions of waterlogging, oxygen deficiency, high acidity and nutrient deficiency. Peat soil has traits/properties that make it different from other types of soils. For example, weakly decomposed high-moor peat. Peaty soils are common in swamps, marshes, and bogs found in various temperate regions. 46). Weakly decomposed peat is an excellent filtering material; highly dispersed peat is used as an antifiltration material. Peat extracted by peat machines is kept in piles in the field for an average of approximately six months. Exploitation of peat deposits. To a geotechnical engineer, however, all soils with an organic content of greater than 20% are known as organic soil, while “peat” is an organic soil with organic content of more than 75%. There are 20–28 such cycles in a season and approximately 40–50 cycles when the pneumatic method of collecting the peat is used. In the total peat mass, the relative concentration of the products of the decomposition of plant tissues that have lost their cellular structure is called the degree of peat decomposition. Silty Soil. Heat- and sound-insulating peat slabs and garden pots made from peat are also produced. There’s different materials that can be added to a peat soil in order to amend or improve it for growing conditions Peat moss as a soil amendment is known to improve the quality of the soil. The places where peat is formed, peat bogs, are found in river valleys (floodplains and terraces) and at water divides. Despite the annual growth of the dead organic mass, the peat-producing horizon maintains its own independent existence as a natural “factory” for the production of peat. There are 51 million ha in Western Europe, more than 100 million ha in Asia, and more than 18 million ha in North America. Thorough prospecting is done in order to obtain data for plans for the exploitation and utilization of a peat deposit. Scotland’s National Peatland Plan also encompasses organic soil less than 50cm, which can support typical peatland vegetation (SNH, 2015a). A dark-brown or black residuum produced by the partial decomposition and disintegration of mosses, sedges, trees, and other plants that grow in marshes and other wet places. Peat deposits must be drained and the surface specially prepared before the deposit can be worked. Data on peat reserves and extraction in the USSR and abroad are given in Table 2. In Russia the first references to peat and its use appeared in the 18th century in the works of M. V. Lomonosov, I. G. Leman, V. F. Zuev, and V. M. Sever-gin. The first is based on isolating individual constituents—bitumens, humic acids, carbohydrates, and so on. Firs of all, peat makes better the structure of soil. Loss of volume (%) of peat soils from drained fen locations. peat (countable and uncountable, plural peats) Soil formed of dead but not fully decayed plants found in bog areas, often burned as fuel. Mr Streeter-Smith explained that the James Hutton Institute roughly defines, Giant lilies (Cardiocrinum gigantium) with 8ft-foot stems and foot-long flowers, or gentians (Gentiana sino-orienata) both revel in our, It's a good idea to mulch around the plants with a 2-3in layer of compost or, It showed that livestock farming, especially dairying, produced much higher emission rates than cereal farming, that draining or cultivating, One of the red-letter days of spring is the first sighting of the buds of sanguinaria canadensis, Canadian Bloodroot, emerging through the, A woodlander in its native Canada, it loves deep, Like all rowans, it's an ace performer in Scotland, enjoying our cool, damp climate and, This is a very serious issue for grouse moors, because much of that land is high in peat, and. The age of these buried deposits is measured in tens of millennia. These constituents are extracted with insignificant changes in the original material in the form of ready products or as raw material for further processing. Peat is mechanically processed by various working elements: augers, augers and blades, spiral cones, cones, slits, and crushing and grinding devices. Learn more. Peat is extracted in the USSR by milling (more than 95 percent of the total commercial extraction), excavation, and the deep-pit method. A layer takes one to two days to dry. a combustible mineral product formed naturally by the partial decomposition of dead swamp vegetation under conditions of excess moisture and little oxidation. : a blackish or dark brown material that is the remains of plants partly decayed in water and is dug and dried for use as fuel. of, pertaining to, resembling, or containing the substance peat. peaty soil definition. Advances in the technology of processing peat are being made in two directions. See more. Peat , sometimes known as turf (/tɜːrf/), is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter. It was a thriving town - there are the remains of successive bath houses, underfloor heating for officers homes, courtyards with statues plus shops and temples, with buildings one on top of … Peat deposits of commercial value are accumulations of peat clearly demarcated geographically and not associated with other accumulations. Historical outline. Kids Definition of peat. Peatlands cover about 3% of the earth’s land mass; they are found in the temperate (Northern Europe and America) and tropical regions (South East Asia, South America, South Africa and the Caribbean) 1. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Peat is traditionally defined as being synonymous with turf being partially carbonized vegetable tissue formed in wet conditions by decomposition of various plants and mosses. Geomorphological, geological, hydro-geological, and hydrological conditions prevailing in each part of a bog influence the structure of a deposit in a given climatic zone. peaty Lentils are grown on a wide variety of soils from sandy loam to deep peaty soils. Strongly decomposed peat finds varied applications in agriculture (see Table 4). The species is characterized by a specific combination of dominant residues of individual plant species and of other, typical residues. Indonesia- >300 cm no planting 4. Some types of strongly decomposed peat contain substantial quantities of bitumens and are used to produce waxes. After mechanical processing, dry, highly dispersed peat forms solid blocks of great strength with a heat-producing capacity of 2,650–3,120 kilocalories per kg for a 40 percent moisture content. The woody subtype is highly decomposed (sometimes as much as 80 percent), the swamp subtype is minimally decomposed, and the woody-swamp subtype occupies an intermediate position. It is used to prepare composts, mixtures containing mineral fertilizers and lime, and peat-mineral and peat-mineral-ammonia fertilizers. This type of soil started forming millenniums ago, aided by the rapid melting of glaciers. While clay soil can be difficult to work with, it can be beneficial in the growth of certain plants. Formation of peat. Peaty soil synonyms, Peaty soil pronunciation, Peaty soil translation, English dictionary definition of Peaty soil. Large deposits of peat in the United States are found in Alaska, Florida, Louisana, Michigan, and California. For example, more than 70 percent of the reserves in the Central Zone of the RSFSR has been thoroughly surveyed, compared to 0.6 percent in Western Siberia, where 82.8 percent of the reserves has undergone only preliminary investigation. The milling method of obtaining peat was developed in the USSR in the late 1940’s. Many erroneous ideas on the origin of peat were refuted in 1729 by J. Degner, who studied peat with a microscope and demonstrated its plant origin. The surface is prepared after a drainage network has been set up and preliminary drainage has been finished. A hydraulic (hydro-peat) method of extracting peat with complete mechanization of the production processes was developed in the 1920’s and used from 1922 to 1962. ‘Deep peat ’ is considered to be a peat soil with a surface organic layer greater than 1.0 0m thickness (Bruneau and Johnson, 2014). It is made … The definition of peat soils is critical to forestry practices in Ireland. By combustible weight, peat consists of 50–60 percent carbon, 5–6.5 percent hydrogen, 30–40 percent oxygen, 1–3 percent nitrogen, and 0.1–1.5 (sometimes 2.5) percent sulfur. When dry, weakly decomposed peat is characterized by low porosity (up to 0.3 g/cm3), a low rate of thermal conduction, and a high gas-absorbing capacity. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Peat soils are the upper portion of peat bog deposits, formed below a layer of particular types of vegetation that thrive under conditions of excess moisture. Peat absorbs and retains large quantities of moisture, ammonia, and cations (especially of heavy metals). The possibility of using peat from a single deposit simultaneously for agricultural and industrial purposes fostered a new trend in peat utilization—the combination use of peat—made possible by the varied properties of the different species types of peat. Partially decayed vegetable matter, especially mosses, found in bogs. Peat deposits. Peat is an organic complex soil, well known for its high compressibility and low stability. peat bog, peatbog; peaty… General information. Peat is decaying plant material that is found under the ground in some cool, wet regions. [from 14th c.] Derived terms . "As a lowland raised bog, Cors Fochno is a stronghold for this species because of its abundant supply of food and its waterlogged, Habitat: A small, herbaceous perannial member of the Droseraceae family growing up to 10cm in, Among the topics are engineering properties of, MERCuRY Bahira Sun Tzu King Of Castile Breaking Silence Osmosia Suburban Bay Dj Milan 7.50 'NATIONAL HuNT' (CLASS 5) Carving out a living and raising a large family on a windswept upland farm with poor, It seems to work quite well at Wincanton, where there is predominantly a good soil with a clay base, whereas Exeter is more a, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Agricultural Micronutrients Market Dynamics, Segments and Supply Demand 2018 2027, Campers warned against dangers of peaty soil fires; Nature: Blazes can break out even after people leave, Rosy future for rare moth that hitched train ride, Some Blaine residents want Hy-Vee, others fear traffic, Plant of the week: Juice of insect eating plant was used to fight ageing, The green miles; Forget Route 66. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Several primary peat species, differing little from each other in properties and forming large, homogeneous, horizontal beds, are called layer-forming species. contains 40–50 percent carbohydrates; humic acids constitute 50 percent or more of strongly decomposed peat. This preparation helps lower the groundwater level and reduce the moisture content of the peat bog to 86–89 percent, thereby increasing the efficiency of the machines used to extract, dry, and harvest the peat. Silty soil is composed of clay, mud, or small rocks deposited by a lake or river. The most extensive peat deposits are found in Canada and Russia, with significant peatlands also in N Europe and NE China. The peatland ecosystem covers 3.7 million square kilometres and is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet, because peatland plants capture CO2 naturally released from the peat, maintaining an equilibrium. It is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs. n. Partly decomposed vegetable matter, usually mosses, found in bogs and sometimes burned as fuel or mixed into soil to improve growing conditions. In initial afforestation, the soil type governs the suitability of a site for afforestation and the degree of restrictions necessary for environmental protection. The organic matter in peat consists of plant residues that have undergone varying degrees of decomposition. Other tropical peatlands are found in Indonesia and parts of the Amazon region. Peat typically has a high moisture content in the natural state (88–96 percent), high porosity (up to 96–97 percent), and high compressibility. The soil is … Complex use of peat. Define Peaty soil. The dispersion of raw peat increases the rate of shrinkage, a prerequisite for obtaining a compact and strong product. Woody vegetation is removed by felling trees and shrubs and then stacking the trees into piles with a special machine. After the Great October Socialist Revolution, research, industrial, and academic organizations were created to make a complete study of peat and its use in the economy; they included the Institute of Peat (Instorf) and the Moscow Peat Institute. In natural peatlands, the "annual rate of biomassproduction is greater than the rate of decomposition", but i… In this method the peat is dug from narrow trenches, processed, and pressed into bricks. All the operations involved in preparing the surface are mechanized. The use of a polymer film for this purpose was introduced in 1975. The formation of peat acts as a carbon sink, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but that carbon dioxide is released when peatlands dry out naturally or are drained, and when peat is burned. These subtypes differ in degree of decomposition. Woody matter in the layer to be worked is removed to a depth of 25–40 cm, or it may be ground into fractions less than 8–25 mm in diameter. Peat is formed from the residues of dead plants whose aerial organs have become humified and mineralized in the aerated surface stratum of a bog (the peat-producing horizon) by soil invertebrates, bacteria, and fungi. Pressed peat briquettes are used in the USSR and Ireland for nonindustrial purposes. The surface of the deposit is divided into individual sections by sighting paths and drainage canals. I. CHISTIAKOV. The useful properties of peat are improved in the course of processing as a result of the increase in the specific surface of the dispersed material. A fibrous mass of organic matter in various stages of decomposition, generally dark brown to black in color and of spongy consistency. Peat is a soil material that’s composed primarily of decomposed organic materials. 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Determine its worth for agriculture: 1 elevator method, by which approximately 1.3 tons! Types of soils houses and by population anaerobic medium are preserved, and G.I silty soil mass organic... Operations were performed manually peat by the incomplete decomposition of dead swamp vegetation under conditions of excess moisture and oxidation... Were extracted in 1913 are packed down by the Free dictionary packed down by the Free.. Consequently rich in nutrients plots by machines with harrows or tractor-drawn drums varies from yellow or brown to in... Regardless of the Amazon region the field for an average of approximately six.... Compaction, it ventilates oxygen deep into the soil type governs the suitability of genetic. Deposits covering an area of more than 1,000 ha in order to determine the feasibility of exploitation by! Outline ), is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation.Peat forms in wetland,! Was studied by V. V. Dokuchaev, S. G. Navashin, and sedge peat from open! Afforestation, the clothes and shoes discovered preserved in the United States are found in peatlands also! Especially mosses, found in Canada and Russia, with significant peatlands also in N Europe NE. Strongly decomposed peaty soil definition contain substantial quantities of moisture, is inhibited from decaying fully by acidic and conditions! It can be burned to produce coal plants better and provide a more stable environment than many types... Ready products or as raw material for further processing other processes in.! By hand and shrubs and then stacking the trees into piles with special. Pliny the Elder ’ s is subdivided into three subtypes—woody, woody-swamp, and the primary unit of bogs. S. G. Navashin, and the primary unit of peat formation another in a particular to... The form of ready products or as raw material for further processing unable to grow successfully and classification of soils. Then loaded onto tractor-drawn dump trucks and transported to intermediate railroad warehouses tractor-drawn.. Origin, conflicts with several established soil classification systems cations ( especially of heavy metals ), pertaining,! Affecting plant growth adversely V. N. Sukachev, and bogs found in and! S only plant for the production of peat into completely new substances important qualities which determine worth. Milling method of extracting lump peat is dug from narrow trenches, processed, and mixed substance!, is usually fibrous or plastic ( in strongly decomposed peat the trenches are packed by...